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Heterogeneous Catalysts

A strategy for minimising metal levels in products is to use heterogeneous/supported catalysts. These catalyst types also facilitate recovery, reuse and recycling as well as being amenable to use in flow reactions. Historically, metals on carbon developed as hydrogenation catalysts were used, but many more sophisticated hetero catalysts are now used, mainly based on solids functionalised with specific ligands. Caution should be exercised since some heterogeneous catalysts work by providing a low level of homogeneous metal catalyst and /or can be prone to metal leaching out into the reaction mixture.

OPRD, 2015, ASAP SiliaCat: A Versatile Catalyst Series for Synthetic Organic Chemistry

OPRD, 2005, 9, 164-167  Straightforward Preparation of Highly Enantioselective Anchored Chiral Homogeneous Catalysts

Current Organic Synthesis, 2011, 8, 881-891 Recent Developments in the Use of Palladium on Solid Support in Organic Synthesis

European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2011,  2347-2360. Polymers for Green C-C Couplings

ChemCatChem, 2011, 3, 1281-1285 18.Cross-Coupling in the Preparation of Pharmaceutically Relevant Substrates using Palladium Supported on Functionalized MesoporousSilicas

Applied Catalysis, A: General, 2007, 325, 76-86. Pd-leaching and Pd-removal in Pd/C-catalyzed Suzuki couplings

Dalton Transactions, 2010, 39, 337-348 Modern multiphase catalysis: new developments in the separation of homogeneous catalysts

Chemical Reviews, 2007,  107, 133-173 Carbon-carbon coupling reactions catalyzed by heterogeneous palladium catalysts

Applied Catalysis, A: General2015,  491, 58-69 Highly efficient and magnetically recyclable graphene-supported Pd/Fe3O4 nanoparticle catalysts for Suzuki and Heck cross-coupling reactions

Current Organic Chemistry, 2015, 19, 695-707 Heck-Matsuda Reaction Catalyzed by Heterogeneous Palladium Catalysts

Synlett, 2014, 25(8),1055-1067  Ten years of adventures with Pd/C catalysts: from reductive processes to coupling reactions

Tetrahedron, 2007, 63, 6949-6976 Silica-supported Pd catalysts for Heck coupling reactions

Synthesis, 2009, 7, 1137-1146 43. Palladium supported on a polyionic resin as an efficient, ligand-free, and recyclable catalyst for Heck, Suzuki Miyaura, and Sonogashira reactions

OPRD2007, 11, 769-772 Pd-Smopex-111: A New Catalyst for Heck and Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reactions